托福独立写作题型介绍 托福独立写作评分标准

  • 作者:海月深深
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相信大家在平时的每一类的英语语言考试中对英语的试卷特点的理解就是题型多,页面长。那我们今天以托福试题来做个参考,托福的题型主要有四大题型,听说口写这四个方面,而每个方面的题型还有一些小的题目,尤其注意到的是托福写作,托福写作分综合于独立写作,很多考生偏爱的是独立写作,所以对托福独立写作题型介绍特别关注。那么小编今天就来为大家讲解一些关于托福独立写作方面的内容吧。

一、托福独立写作题型介绍

独立写作

与综合写作不同,独立写作要求考生就某个观点提出自己的看法,并进行充分的论证。下面笔者来具体分析这一题型。

命题形式

独立写作的命题形式一般为“Do you agree or disagree with the following statement …”(你是否同意下面的论断……),要求考生对题目给出的论断表明自己的观点,然后写出具体的理由和细节来支持自己的观点,写作的字数是300词以上,考试时间为30分钟。题目给出的论断主要涉及以下十大类的话题。

成功类话题:In order to achieve success, we must be more like others than be different from others.

工作类话题:People should take a secure job immediately when finding one instead of waiting for the job that they find more satisfying.

金钱类话题:Most businesspeople are motivated by the desire for money.

科技类话题:Telephone has had greater effects on people’s lives than TV.

教育类话题:To improve the quality of education, universities should spend more money on professors’ salaries.

朋友类话题:Getting advice from friends who are older than you is better than getting advice from friends who are of the same age as yours.

环境类话题:Most of the environmental issues are too complicated today. Individuals cannot do anything about them.

政府类话题:The most important thing that the government can do in improving health care is to clean the environment.

媒体类话题:Advertising is a waste of time and money because customers already know what they want.

动物类话题:More and more people are spending money on their pets, even though there can be other good ways to spend money.

命题规律

既然托福独立写作题目允许考生选择“同意”或是“不同意”,也就意味着写作题目通常具有“争议性”这一基本特征,考生可以选择自己的观点,然后对自己的观点进行论证。此外,有些独立写作题目有很显著的特征,笔者总结了以下三类,并为这三类考题提供一点写作小技巧。

第一,某些独立写作题目会含有“should/should not”这一关键词,对于这一类题目,考生既可以选择“同意”,也可以选择“不同意”。2010年8月14日的题目就是如此:“Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Students should not take part-time jobs when they study in university.”对于此类题目,考生写作时可以以句式“Whether … or has been a controversial issue”开头。例如,针对上面这道题目,考生可以在开头写道:“Whether students should take part-time jobs or not has been a controversial issue when they study in university.”

第二,有些独立写作题目含有“all”“most”“best”这类表示绝对语气的词,对于这些含有绝对语气词的题目,笔者建议考生还是选择“不同意”为好。理由很简单,这些题目从逻辑上讲无一例外都夸大了某一个要素的重要性,否认了其他要素的影响,看问题只见树木不见森林。例如,2010年5月8日的独立写作题目为:“Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? The best way for parents to teach children responsibility is to have them care for animals.”对于此类题目,考生可以在开头段或结尾部分以这样的句式亮明自己的观点:“This argument exaggerates the importance of A and deny the significance of other factors such as B, C, and D which can also contribute to sth./sb.”

第三,还有一类题目则是将事物A和事物B作比较,含有“… better/more … than …”等词。例如,2010年6月13日的题目:“Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? It’s better to spend money on pleasant things such as vacations than to save money for the future.”对于这一类题目,笔者通常建议考生以这样的方式开头:“Although A/B has some benefits for …, I still hold a firm belief that B/A will exert more significant influence on …”

二、托福独立写作评分标准

托福独立写作5分

An essay at this level largely accomplishes all of the following:

Effectively addresses the topic and task

Is well organized and well developed, using clearly appropriate explanations, exemplification, and/or details

Displays unity, progression, and coherence

Displays consistent facility in the use of language, demonstrating syntactic variety, appropriate word choice, and idiomaticity, though it may have minor lexical or grammatical errors

托福独立写作4分

An essay at this level largely accomplishes all of the following:

Effectively addresses the topic and task well, though some points may not be fully elaborated

Is well generally organized and well developed, using appropriate and sufficient explanations, exemplification, and/or details

Displays unity, progression, and coherence, though it may contain occasional redundancy, digression or unclear connections

Displays facility in the use of language, demonstrating syntactic variety, appropriate word choice, and range of vocabulary, though it may have occasional noticeable minor errors in structure, word form, or use of idiomatic language that do not interfere with meaning.

托福独立写作3分

An essay at this level is marked by one or more of the following:

Addresses the topic and task well using somewhat developed explanations, exemplification, and/or details

Displays unity, progression, and coherence, though connections of ideas may be occasionally obscured

May demonstrate inconsistent facility in sentence formation and word choice that may result in lack of clarity and occasionally obscure meaning.

May display accurate but limited range of syntactic structures and vocabulary

三、托福独立写作命题规律

托福独立写作命题规律一:

某些独立写作题目会含有“should/should not”这一关键词,对于这一类题目,考生既可以选择“同意”,也可以选择“不同意”。2010年8月14日的题目就是如此:“Do you agree ordisagree with the following statement? Students should not take part-time jobs when they study in university.”对于此类题目,考生写作时可以以句式“Whether … or has been acontroversial issue”开头。

例如,针对上面这道题目,考生可以在开头写道:“Whether students should take part-time jobs or not has been a controversial issue when they study in university.”

托福独立写作命题规律二:

有些托福独立写作题目含有“all”“most”“best”这类表示绝对语气的词,对于这些含有绝对语气词的题目,建议考生还是选择“不同意”为好。理由很简单,这些题目从逻辑上讲无一例外都夸大了某一个要素的重要性,否认了其他要素的影响,看问题只见树木不见森林。例如,2010年5月8日的独立写作题目为:“Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? The best way for parents to teach children responsibility is to have them care for animals.”

对于此类题目,考生可以在开头段或结尾部分以这样的句式亮明自己的观点:“This argument exaggerates the importance of A and deny the significance of other factors such as B, C, and D which can also contribute to sth./sb.”

托福独立写作命题规律三:

还有一类托福独立写作题目则是将事物A和事物B作比较,含有“… better/more … than …”等词。例如,2010年6月13日的题目:“Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? It’s better to spend money on pleasant things such as vacations than to save money for the future.”

对于这一类题目,建议考生以这样的方式开头:“Although A/B has some benefits for …, I still hold a firm belief that B/A will exert more significant influence on …”

以上就是口语侠小编为大家准备的关于托福独立写作题型介绍的内容啦。独立写作的命题一般都偏重于大家平时普遍遇到的社会现象的话题。只要求考生对命题表达自己的观点即可,字数一般在300-400词左右,所以根据这些可以得出结论,托福的独立写作难度不大,考生们只需注重平时生活中英语素材的积累,经常练习一些表达自己观点的文章就能够帮助到托福考试的发挥啦。


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