2021年托福考试真题及答案 托福口语准备时间

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最近偶小伙伴们来私聊小编关于今年托福真题的相关信息,那么2021年托福考试真题及答案又是怎样的呢,根据小编的收集内容了解到的是下面有一份详细的真题参考答案,考生们可以阅读下面的内容来进行学习,考前了解这个真题有助于我们把握考试难度,提前做好一些心理准备等等。托福口语准备时间多长呢,一般是前面几题是15秒的时间,后面四道题的准备时间更新为30秒的时间,下面来看看吧。

一、2021年托福考试真题及答案

新托福考试真题精选及详解(一)

Reading Section

Directions

The Reading section tests your ability to understand reading passages like those in college textbooks. The passages are about 700 words in length.

This is the short format for the Reading section. On the short format, you will read three passages. After each passage, you will answer 12-14 questions about it. You may take notes while you read, but notes are not graded. You may use your notes to answer the questions. Some passages may include a word or phrase that is underlined in blue. Click on the word or phrase to see a glossary definition or explanation.

Choose the best answer for multiple-choice questions. Follow the directions on the page or on the screen for computer-assisted questions. Most questions are worth 1 point, but the last question in each passage is worth more than 1 point.

The Reading section is divided into parts. Click on Next to go to the next question. Click on Back to return to previous questions. You may return to previous questions for all of the passages in the same part, but after you go to the next part, you will not be able to return to passages in the previous part. Be sure that you have answered all of the questions for the passages in each part before you click on Next at the end of the passage to move to the next part.

You can click on Review to see a chart of the questions you have answered and the questions you have not answered in each part. From this screen, you can return to the question you want to answer in the part that is open.

You will have 20 minutes to read each passage and answer the questions for that passage. You will have 60 minutes to complete all of the passages and answer all of the questions on the short format. A clock on the screen will show you how much time you have to complete the Reading section.

THE DEVELOPMENT OF REFRIGERATION

[1] Cold storage, or refrigeration, is keeping food at temperatures between 32 and 45 degrees F in order to delay the growth of microorganisms—bacteria, molds, and yeast— that cause food to spoil. Refrigeration produces few changes in food, so meats, fish, eggs, milk, fruits, and vegetables keep their original flavor, color, and nutrition. Before artificial refrigeration was invented, people stored perishable food with ice or snow to lengthen its storage time. Preserving food by keeping it in an ice-filled pit is a 4,000-year-old art. Cold storage areas were built in basements, cellars, or caves, lined with wood or straw, and packed with ice. The ice was transported from mountains, or harvested from local lakes or rivers, and delivered in large blocks to homes and businesses.

[2] Artificial refrigeration is the process of removing heat from a substance, container, or, enclosed area, to lower its temperature. The heat is moved from the inside of the container to the outside. A refrigerator uses the evaporation of a volatile liquid, or refrigerant, to absorb heat. In most types of refrigerators, the refrigerant is compressed, pumped through a pipe, and allowed to vaporize. As the liquid turns to vapor, it loses heat and gets colder because the molecules of vapor use energy to leave the liquid. The molecules left behind have less energy and so the liquid becomes colder. Thus, the air inside the refrigerator is chilled.

[3] Scientists and inventors from around the world developed artificial refrigeration during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. William Cullen demonstrated artificial refrigeration in Scotland in 1748, when he let ethyl ether boil into a partial vacuum. In 1805, American inventor Oliver Evans designed the first refrigeration machine that used vapor instead of liquid. In 1842, physician John Gorrie used Evans’s design to create an air-cooling apparatus to treat yellow-fever patients in a Florida hospital. Gorrie later left his medical practice and experimented with ice making, and in 1851 he was granted the first U.S. patent for mechanical refrigeration. In the same year, an Australian printer, James Harrison, built an ether refrigerator after noticing that when he cleaned his type with ether it became very cold as the ether evaporated. Five years later, Harrison introduced vapor-compression refrigeration to the brewing and meatpacking industries.

[4] Brewing was the first industry in the United States to use mechanical refrigeration extensively, and in the 1870s, commercial refrigeration was primarily directed at breweries. German-born Adolphus Busch was the first to use artificial refrigeration at his brewery in St. Louis. Before refrigeration, brewers stored their beer in caves, and production was constrained by the amount of available cave space. Brewing was strictly a local business, since beer was highly perishable and shipping it any distance would result in spoilage. Busch solved the storage problem with the commercial vapor-compression refrigerator. He solved the shipping problem with the newly invented refrigerated railcar, which was insulated with ice bunkers in each end. Air came in on the top, passed through the bunkers, and circulated through the car by gravity. In solving Busch’s spoilage and storage problems, refrigeration also revolutionized an entire industry. By 1891, nearly every brewery was equipped with mechanical refrigerating machines.

[5] The refrigerators of today rely on the same basic principle of cooling caused by the rapid evaporation and expansion of gases. Until 1929, refrigerators used toxic gases— ammonia, methyl chloride, and sulfur dioxide—as refrigerants. After those gases accidentally killed several people, chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) became the standard refrigerant. However, they were found to be harmful to the earth’s ozone layer, so refrigerators now use a refrigerant called HFC 134a, which is less harmful to the ozone.

1. What is the main reason that people developed methods of refrigeration? 

(A) They wanted to improve the flavor and nutritional value of food.

(B) They needed to slow the natural processes that cause food to spoil.

(C) They needed a use for the ice that formed on lakes and rivers.

(D) They wanted to expand the production of certain industries.

2. The word perishable in paragraph 1 is closest in meaning to

(A) capable of spoiling

(B) uncooked

(C) of animal origin

(D) highly nutritious

3. What can be inferred from paragraph 1 about cold storage before the invention of artificial refrigeration?

(A) It kept food cold for only about a week.

(B) It was dependent on a source of ice or snow.

(C) It required a container made of metal or wood.

(D) It was not a safe method of preserving meat.

4. Artificial refrigeration involves all of the following processes EXCEPT

(A) the pumping of water vapor through a pipe

(B) the rapid expansion of certain gases

(C) the evaporation of a volatile liquid

(D) the transfer of heat from one place to another

5. Which sentence below best expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence in paragraph 2? Incorrect choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information.

(A) It takes a lot of energy to transform a liquid into a vapor, especially when the vapor loses heat.

(B) Some gases expand rapidly and give off energy when they encounter a very cold liquid.

(C) When kinetic energy is changed to heat energy, liquid molecules turn into vapor molecules.

(D) During evaporation, the vapor molecules use energy, and the liquid becomes colder.

6. According to the passage, who was the first person to use artificial refrigeration for a practical purpose?

(A) William Cullen

(B) Oliver Evans

(C) John Gorrie

(D) Adolphus Busch

7. The word it in paragraph 3 refers to

(A) printer

(B) refrigerator

二、托福口语准备时间

每个部分都有准备时间的。

第一部分(1-2题):准备时间为15秒,答题时间45秒

第2部分(3-4题):准备时间为30秒,答题60秒

第3部分(5-6题):准备时间为30秒,答题60秒"

1、托福独立口语准备时间15秒,考生拿到标题后用15秒着手想本人的答案框架和答题句,去润饰详细的开头句。在心里扼要过一遍大致思绪,这样会大大缓解临场的表达压力。

2、托福综合口语前两个TASK的准备时间是30秒,考生要留意梳理信息的主次和先后关系,记载好关键词,然后停止扩大以及 paraphrase 。答题过程中,一定要心中有框架,claim、reason、evidentce 大约要占重的比例要在日常练习中固定下来,便当本人在考场上增删本人的答题内容。

3. 托福综合口语最后一题的准备时间是30秒,大家一定要提早理解这道标题的主要话题类型,关于可能会呈现的话题内容和答复套路技巧等等要做到心中有数。

三、托福认可度

美国:在美国,托福考试100%被认可,90%的美国顶尖大学(其中包含哈佛大学、斯坦福大学、普林斯顿大学、杜克大学、加州大学伯克利分校、加州理工大学、佐治亚大学、佐治亚理工学院等)认可托福考试。因为在美国,各大学所接受的托福成绩多于其他英语考试的总和,以及约为90%的本科和研究生项目认可托福考试而非其他语言考试。 

英国和欧洲:在英国,托福考试被100%的英国大学,包括100%的罗素集团大学所接受,包括剑桥大学、牛津大学、伦敦政经学院、帝国理工学院等学校,同时托福考试也是法国和德国的大学首选的英语语言考试,并且被欧洲所有顶尖的大学所接受。 

加拿大:在加拿大被100%认可,并且80%以上的研究生项目认可托福考试,接受托福成绩多于其他英语考试的总和。加拿大TOP20名校中:多伦多大学、戴尔豪斯大学、滑铁卢大学、英属哥伦比亚大学、阿尔伯塔大学、维多利亚大学、贵湖大学大学、皇后大学,西门菲莎大学、麦克马斯特大学、渥太华大学,卡尔顿大学、曼尼托巴大学、卡尔加里大学等接收托福成绩。 

澳大利亚和新西兰:无论实在澳大利亚还是新西兰,托福考试都是被100%的高校和各类移民签证认可,并且可以满足学术、工作的需求。 

亚洲:托福考试成绩被亚洲全部顶尖大学接受,包含日本的东京大学、京都大学、名古屋大学、北海道大学、新加坡的新加坡国立大学、南洋理工大学、新加坡管理大学等。 

中国:中国香港、中国澳门以及中国台湾的所有顶级大学和学院均接受托福考试成绩。2019年12月11日,中国教育部考试中心与托福官方(ETS)联合宣布托福iBT考试成绩成功对接中国英语能力等级量表(CSE)在对接表中将托福成绩按照阅读、听力、口语、写作四部分及总分从低到高对应CSE中第四级到第八级。

四、怎样提高托福口语

在我们学习今年的托福考试真题的时候也可以跟外教交流一下经验,分享一下我在用的app:口语侠,可以随时和世界各地的Native Speaker进行一对一的口语对练。这个软件用起来就跟打微信语音/视频电话一样,质量很清晰。这个是最让我感到意外且性价比超级高的一个APP了。我长期练习的一个外教陪练是英国的Leila,她不仅口音纯正,而且人超级nice,她本人还是一个摄影师,我也经常跟她交流摄影方面的技巧。

下载注册口语侠app后,一定要输入我的推荐码:ZXN0GT,可以免费获得10分钟的练习时长。

小伙伴们在跟外国人练习托福口语时,我有2个建议:1是提前准备一个话题,带着话题去跟他们练习能让你学到很多地道的表达;2.是不一定非要选择欧美的老外,像有些南非、菲律宾的也很专业,练习口语也不错。

上面的内容我们可以了解到的是2021年托福考试真题及答案以及托福口语准备时间的回答,通过上面的学习我们可以了解到的是今年的一些托福考试的部分真题以及详细的解题答案,托福口语的备考不仅仅是通过历年的真题来学习,更多的是考生们认真提高自己口语水平的各个部分哦,希望这些内容对你有用哦。


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